Astronomers have long pondered the origins of enormous elliptical galaxies in the young Universe. An object 11 billion light-years away spotted by the Herschel mission may help unravel the mystery.
Two massive spiral galaxies merged to create a giant elliptical galaxy, which were previously believed to form through the absorption of dwarf galaxies over time.
The Tubeless Siphon
Certain non-Newtonian fluids which are elastic display a large resistance to extensional flow. Such behaviour leads to fluid flow arrangements which are simply not possible using ordinary Newtonian fluids. These flows manifest themselves in a variety of ways.
In the so-called ”tubeless” syphon, a fluid can be made to flow up through an unsupported liquid column above the free surface of the liquid. One way to achieve this is by slowly withdrawing and raising a syringe from a pool of the liquid below.
In the ”open channel” syphon, after initially commencing the flow of an elastic fluid from a beaker, the fluid will continue to flow up the side and over the lip of the beaker for some time, despite the level of its free surface having fallen considerably below the top of the beaker. In this way, the slightest spill will cause the beaker to partially empty in what is commonly referred to as a ”self-syphoning” effect.